• TALK STORY: RALPH SHAW

    KNOWN internationally as the ‘King of the Ukulele’, Ralph Shaw was one of the first performers to catch the Third Wave of Uke in the 1990s and he continues to tour and teach. KAMUKE stands on a chair to have a chat with the tall and talented Englishman/Canadian.

    You started playing in 1990. How did people react to the uke back then?

    With great amusement. No-one around me was playing ukulele and the novelty value was powerful. Kids loved it, as did older people whose only previous exposure to the instrument was either Tiny Tim or George Formby. Simply taking the uke out of its case was enough to spark expectant laughter.

    Before you became the ‘King of the Ukulele’, you were a clown and children’s entertainer. What did you learn from that experience?

    What didn’t I learn! In my mid-20s, I was wondering what to do with my life when I discovered the book The Independent Entertainer: How To Be A Successful Clown, Juggler, Mime, Magician, Or Puppeteer by Happy Jack Feder. It was a lightbulb moment for me as I realised the possibility of living an independent life, free from the shackles of grinding employment. (I later learnt that cash-free free time can be as bad as working full-time, so now I try to avoid both situations.) I’ve often thought that becoming a clown for a couple of years should be a compulsory part of everyone’s life – a form of national service. I learnt a lot about myself and how to entertain mixed audiences in every situation. Children are tough and honest critics. If they don’t like you, they tell you to your face.

    You released The Complete Ukulele Course in 2003 and it’s still very popular. What sets it apart from other instructional videos?

    Well, the title for one thing, which pays homage to the 1653 book The Compleat Angler by Izaak Walton – the first how-to book ever written. With regards to my DVD, I’m actually still very proud of that bit of work; it’s something of a low-tech masterpiece. In the video, I take the viewer from the basics of getting started, tuning and simple strums through to trickier techniques such as Formby’s split stroke and melody chording.

    What’s remarkable is that it’s all done in one long camera shot without any editing. I don’t know if I could do it again. In those days, the VHS tapes were 60 minutes long and that limited the program length. My performance was 59 minutes and I think Mike, my producer, almost collapsed with anxiety while shooting those last few minutes. Since then, we’ve added bonus features to the DVD, including tips on performing. Obviously, it’s not “complete” in the sense that it shows everything you can possibly do on a ukulele, but when released it was the only video that took people beyond basic strumming and opened their eyes to many other techniques.

    Your latest project is a book called The Ukulele Entertainer: Powerful Pointers For Players And Performers. What’s the one thing you hope people will take from it?

    That’s a very hard question to answer. It’s a multifaceted book (now also an eBook) designed to get people thinking differently about their performance and playing skills, as well as hopefully being an enjoyable read. I trust people will glean whatever they need. My main hope is that it will inspire players of all stripes to find ways to lift their interest into new and exciting areas. If it does for others what Happy Jack Feder’s book did for me, I’ll be very pleased.

    You’ve toured all over the world, including Australia. What are some of your favourite memories from life on the road?

    My favourite memories come from the people I meet along the way. I’m not a big-budget act, so I rarely stay in fancy hotels. It’s always a delight to get to know the folks who volunteer to bring me into their homes. We get to know each other pretty well and I’m amazed by the interests, talents and depths of personality I discover. Australians, like John Chandler and numerous others, went out of their way to help me experience their country and I feel honoured to have been in that position.

    You live in Vancouver [now England – ED] . What’s the ukulele scene like there?

    I’ve been running the Vancouver Ukulele Circle since September 2000 and I’ve watched ukulele fever grow slowly for 10 years and suddenly flourish in the past two. For a long time, I was the only ukulele act in a metropolitan area of about three million. But now other classes have started and people are doing their own thing, and that’s how it should be.

    Which musicians inspire you?

    I have a hard time getting interested in many newer artists, partly because they tend to sound like the older artists, whose music has also worn thin. As a result, I’m no longer the music fan I was. However, I still get terrifically inspired when I take in an act that is both skilled and original, like some I saw at The Melbourne Ukulele Festival this year. Three favourites for me were The Nukes – a New Zealand trio who put out great songs, a comedic character called Tyrone whose lyrical act is a heartwarming series of musical vignettes, and Liz Wood from the USA, who has a disarming way of performing her songs, seemingly without ego or showmanship.

    You have a degree in applied physics. Has it helped you in your uke playing at all?

    No.

    Finally, where would you be without the ukulele?

    Ah, that’s easy­ – I have no idea.

     

    5 FAVOURITES

    Colour: Blue

    Animal: Birds, such as the barn swallow, penguin and cassowary

    Food: A really good curry

    City: No, thanks, I prefer the country

    Word: Mate

  • READER’S POEM: TO A UKULELE

    This submission comes from David Waxman, who says: “I’m a ukulele player, a KAMUKE subscriber and a poet – and I’ve written a poem that involves a ukulele.  I think your readers might like it…”

    To A Ukulele

    Which I lift from its case, strum,
    sitting on our living room couch.

    Sarah, on high back chair, concocts
    cello counterpoint – Maxwell’s Silver Hammer.

    A breeze moves lace curtains
    through windows open onto our patio.
    Sparrows skip among brown leaves.
    Beechwoods rise grey in our backyard.

    Beechwoods stood
    in my boyhood backyard,
    sentinels in Sherwood Forest.
    I blink twice. Sarah

    strikes a discord and I startle,
    look up from my uke –
    amber koa carries
    South Seas music.

    Sarah smiles, cocks her head in a question.

  • FESTIVAL PASS: CENTRAL COAST UKULELE FESTIVAL, AUSTRALIA

    In September, I had the privilege of performing at the amazing Central Coast Ukulele Festival here in Australia. It was incredibly well organised and just great fun, as you can see from the little photo gallery below. Anyway, I thought it was the perfect time to run my interview with Liz Kitney from Issue 10. Check it out below the gallery – Cameron

    Nestled between the cities of Sydney and Newcastle, The Entrance is a picture-perfect coastal town and the home of the Central Coast Ukulele Festival. Organiser Liz Kitney from the Central Coast Ukulele Club takes us through the ins and outs of running what is an increasingly popular event on the Aussie uke calendar.

    What made you want to start a ukulele festival?

    After a few performances during the warmer months, we noticed the crowd building every time. People enjoyed our performances so much, we suggested the idea of having a festival to The Entrance Town Centre management and they liked the idea. The following year, we went to the second Blue Mountains Ukulele Festival and when we saw how much fun it was, we were even more inspired to hold our own. So, in May 2012, we held the first Central Coast Ukulele Festival.

    Tell us about your location and venues.

    The first year, we held the festival in May. The second year in August. Now, we’ve set it for the last weekend in September. Four out of the five years, we’ve held the festival at The Entrance. We have two stages – one in Memorial Park overlooking the beach, lakes and mountains, and the Sails Stage, which is located on the waterfront and is surrounded by cafes and restaurants. The dinner shows are held at the Diggers club and the after-dark venues have been at the Diggers and The Entrance Hotel. Last year, we were hit with inclement weather. At the last minute, we moved everything to the Diggers. The club staff were absolutely brilliant in helping to bring our entire festival indoors!

    How has the CCUF evolved? 

    The festival has been growing each year. It has a great reputation and it’s attracting folk from all over Australia and now internationally. We maintain it as a free festival for the community and visitors.

    What’s been your favourite festival moment so far?

    In 2015, after storms ravaged our area and the festival was forced indoors, we had an amazing time, with everyone in great spirits and wall-to-wall people all loving it. The club manager said he’d never seen anything like it before and the chairman congratulated us. We also set a world record – which we still hold today – for the most people playing more than three chords for more than five minutes while wearing a moustache! We raised more than AU$2000 for men’s health charity Movember. Having The Nukes arrive from New Zealand and being there in that crazy weather was absolutely brilliant. And Mic Conway is always a highlight.

    What is the trickiest part of running the event? 

    Everything! We don’t have a lot of funding, but we try to make it the best place to be with very talented players. We are busy raising funds all year.

    Do you have any advice for anyone who’s thinking of starting a festival? 

    Try to get sponsorships, funding and great acts… and keep calm! Communication is also a major part of anything being successful. A great team is precious.

    What’s your best tip for attendees?

    Simply stay and enjoy everything!

    What would you like people to take away from the experience?

    The event is free, so this is our gift to you all. It makes you happy. The acts are brilliant and everyone just shines at the end of the day. Nothing like live music to soothe your heart and soul.

    Which other uke festivals do you like? 

    We love the Blue Mountains Ukulele Festival (another free event), the Mandorah Ukulele and Folk Festival in Darwin, the Cairns Ukulele Festival in Queensland and Ukulele Festival Hawaii.

    Do you ever get time to enjoy the event yourself?

    Not really. It flashes before my eyes. I enjoy our great acts and I try to meet as many folk as I can. This year, we had Cameron Murray, Mic Conway, The Nukes, Bosko & Honey and Mirrabooka. And a full program of ukulele collectives, groups, duos, solos and comedy. It was brilliant!

    How would you like to see the CCUF develop in coming years? 

    I’d like more people to know about the Central Coast Ukulele Festival. We are in a regional area between two big cities and our spot is just beautiful, with beaches, lakes, rainforest and ukuleles. We’d like to see more people come and enjoy the festival and our area.

    The 2016 CCUF featured Mic Conway, Phil Donnison, Bosko & Honey, The Nukes and Cameron Murray. Organisers Liz and Rob Kitney are pictured far right.

    Central Coast Ukulele Festival

    Where: The Entrance, NSW, Australia

    When: September

    centralcoastukuleleclub.wordpress.com

  • HALL OF FAME: TROY FERNANDEZ

    By Cameron Murray

    THE first time I heard the Ka‘au Crater Boys’ On Fire, I nearly fell off my chair. Who were these guys? And, more importantly, who was their ukulele player? In more than a decade of being associated with the uke, I’d never heard anything quite like it. The technique, the precision, the sheer joy of it! To this day, On Fire is one of my all-time favourite instrumentals.

    I later found out the talented musician behind the ukulele was Troy Fernandez. In the early 1990s, Troy and his surfing buddy Ernie Cruz Jr (who sadly passed away recently) became the voice of a new generation of Hawaiian performers as the Ka‘au Crater Boys. The duo recorded four popular albums and won three Nā Hōkū Hanohano awards – the Hawaiian equivalent of Grammys.

    “I started playing when I was nine years old because in Hawaii every school has a fourth grade ukulele class,” Troy tells me. “When I got to middle school, I started watching Peter Moon and Eddie Kamae, so they were my heroes when I was young, mainly Peter Moon.”

    Troy started his first band when he was 13 and quickly landed a high-profile gig opening for Australian pop queen Helen Reddy at the Sheraton Hotel in Waikiki. “I was actually playing upright bass in the group because my friend was way better than me on ukulele and guitar,” says Troy. “They thought we were just kids running around. Our name was Us and we had tight three-part harmonies, good vocals, good music.”

    Troy and Ernie had been playing together for about a decade before the Ka‘au Crater Boys came into existence.

    “We were known as ET – Ernie and Troy,” explains the 53-year-old. “We started playing in clubs and I said to Ernie, ‘If we keep doing what we’re doing, one day someone’s going to come through the door and they’re gonna want to record us.’

    “That happened and then I told Ernie, ‘I don’t think we should use the name ET because if we get really big we might get sued by the movie guys!’ So Ernie said, ‘I know a name – Ka‘au Crater Boys!’ We’re from Palolo and deep in the valley, there’s a crater called the Ka‘au Crater. I thought, ‘It doesn’t matter what our name is, it’s not going to change the way we play.’”

    Soon enough, the Ka‘au Crater Boys were making waves on the music scene and Troy’s exciting playing style was causing a ukulele resurgence in the islands, particularly among young people.

    “We would go surfing at Hanalei Bay in Kauai and there would be some kids under a tree playing our songs!” says Troy with a grin. “Then we’d go surfing in Hilo on the Big Island and we’d be passing kids and they’d be playing our songs, too. So we found out that everywhere we go in Hawaii, there are kids trying to learn our songs.”

    So what does Troy think of the Third Wave Of Uke, a movement he helped kick-start with his astonishing skill on four strings?

    “There are so many good players, it’s amazing!” he replies. “So many ukulele makers. Everyone is playing the ukulele now, everyone around the world is picking up the ukulele.”

    As our chat comes to an end, I ask Troy if he has any advice for aspiring performers. “Never give up!” he beams. “If I can do it, anybody can do it.”

    This article first appeared in Issue 10 of KAMUKE, which is available in the Store

  • CINEMATIC STRUMMING: SOME LIKE IT HOT

    SOME LIKE IT HOT (1959)

    Director: Billy Wilder

    Stars: Jack Lemmon, Tony Curtis, Marilyn Monroe, George Raft

    WHEN Some Like It Hot was released in 1959, the ukulele was riding a second wave of popularity in America, largely due to influential television personality Arthur Godfrey’s on-air championing of the instrument.

    The classic comedy stars Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis as struggling musicians who have to get out of Chicago in a hurry after they witness what is obviously supposed to be the 1929 St Valentine’s Day Massacre.

    Without a dime to their names and ruthless mobsters led by ‘Spats’ Colombo (Raft) on their trail, the hapless pair don wigs and nylons and manage to con their way into an all-girl band that’s headed for Miami. However, things get even more complicated when both men fall for the group’s soprano uke player, a vivacious blonde named Sugar Kane (Monroe).

     

    Despite the production being plagued by Marilyn’s hostile and unpredictable behaviour (Curtis allegedly described his love scenes with the icon as “like kissing Hitler”), the movie was a huge hit and Monroe won a Golden Globe award for her performance. In 2000, the American Film Institute listed Some Like It Hot as the greatest American comedy film of all time.

    Call us biased, but we reckon the uke played its part in the movie’s success. We can’t imagine the adorably kooky Sugar playing anything else!

    This article first appeared in Issue 1 of KAMUKE, which is available in the Store

  • KEEPING THE GROOVE

    By Victoria Vox

    AS I mindfully listen to other ukulele players, I’m often drawn to the groove. At this year’s Vancouver Ukulele Festival, Daphne Roubini (of Ruby’s Ukes) performed a song she wrote and explained it was to teach beginner players those first few chords. She established a rhythm, never rushing, and held her basic strumming in the pocket. It was absolutely beautiful and I forgot she was playing a straight up C chord most of the time.

    The truth is, what she did was quite difficult. Since I began teaching ukulele workshops in 2008, I’ve noticed how much people rush, vary the tempo, skip a beat or add a few when trying to accomplish some fancy fingering or rhythm.

    I’d like to compare playing a song to riding a bike. I’ve done a fair bit of cycling in the past few years and have learnt so much about efficiency, stamina and rhythm. This boils down to what cyclists call a cadence. (Musically, a cadence is defined as the movement of melody or chords that create a sense of resolution.) I learnt, in finding my cadence, to never stop pedalling and that I need to change gears, especially on hilly landscapes, to keep the same pedalling speed. The point is to maintain a groove. Once one stops the circular pedalling motion, it’s that much harder to get back into it.

    Playing ukulele is similar. When we’re learning something new, we naturally slow down at the challenging parts. However, practicing this way can affect the future performance of the song. Try practicing with a metronome at a tempo you can easily play the difficult chords or strum, even if the easier sections seem painfully slow. It’ll sound much better than slowing down for the hard parts and speeding up during the familiar areas.

    Keeping the groove at a slower tempo helps me understand the beats I am playing. I like to subdivide the beats mentally (into sixteenth notes) so every beat is accounted for equally. Also, it might help to imagine the drums and bass.

    The bottom line is, play whatever you’re going to play in time, be it super simple or fretted fancifully. Take your time. Give it feeling. They’ll all be screaming, “Groovy, baby!”

    Grab a copy of Victoria’s groovy new album When The Night Unravels at victoriavox.com

    Photo by Philip Edward Laubner

    This article first appeared in Issue 9 of KAMUKE, which is available in the Store

  • JUMPIN’ JAKE FLASH!

    NO OTHER player in recent decades has popularised the ukulele to the same extent as Jake Shimabukuro. Since shooting to stardom in 2006 with his YouTube cover of While My Guitar Gently Weeps, the Hawaiian virtuoso has been touring the world and inspiring millions. In our exclusive interview, Jake takes time out from his Uke Nations world tour to chat about his ukulele idols, a brush with royalty and what the instrument means to him.

    Which uke players did you look up to when you were a kid?

    My all-time favourite ukulele player is Eddie Kamae. He is regarded as the first ukulele virtuoso here in Hawaii. Some of my other heroes include Peter Moon, Ohta-San and Troy Fernandez.

    You were already a respected musician in 2006, but how did that YouTube video change your life?

    YouTube opened so many doors for me in 2006. It helped to introduce my ukulele playing to millions of people around the world and allowed me to establish a consistent touring schedule. YouTube is a great vehicle for artists like myself to be heard.

    What advice do you have for the next generation of YouTube hopefuls?

    I think the most important thing is to be yourself. The video that you post will be around for a very long time, so make sure that you post something you’ll still be proud of 20 years later.

    You’re always touring. What’s been your most memorable gig so far?

    By far one of my most memorable moments is a performance with Bette Midler in England, for Queen Elizabeth. I even shook Her Majesty’s hand after the performance.

    Why do you choose to play Kamaka instruments?

    I always wanted to play a Kamaka tenor ukulele – they are the Excalibur of ukes. The tone is what sets it apart from other brands and Kamaka is the world’s leading ukulele manufacturer when it comes to quality, with almost 100 years of experience.

    Where is your favourite place to practice?

    I can practice anywhere. That’s the beauty of the ukulele. I could be at the airport, in a taxi or on a boat strumming away and not have to worry about ruining the instrument.

    What’s your No. 1 tip for intermediate players who are looking to step up?

    I always tell players that the most important thing is your tone. If you can get a good tone out of your instrument, people will want to listen and you will be inspired to play.

    You’ve performed in Australia. What do you think of the uke scene down-under?

    The ukulele scene is growing rapidly in Australia. The last time I toured there, a lot of people brought their ukes for me to sign after the show. I’m looking forward to touring there again next year. I’m sure I’ll meet a lot more uke players.

    If you could record a fantasy duet with any artist, living or dead, who would you choose and why?

    My fantasy duet would have to be with Eddie Kamae. I wouldn’t be playing the ukulele the way I play it today if it weren’t for him and his vision for the instrument.

    What’s on heavy rotation on your iPod right now?

    I’ve been listening to the Rocky IV soundtrack recently. It’s very inspiring and definitely motivates me to work hard and not be lazy!

    In terms of its development, where would you like to see the ukulele movement go in the next five to 10 years?

    I hope that gear manufacturers will start to make quality products specifically for the ukulele. For example, pickups, tube amps and effect pedals that are calibrated for the range of the instrument.

    What can we expect from your 2014 Uke Nations tour?

    I’ve been touring with a bass player this year. That’s been a lot of fun. The bass guitar and ukulele complement each other very well. They don’t get in each other’s way sonically and the low bass notes allows for more harmonic complexity in the ukulele.

    Finally, what has the ukulele given you?

    The ukulele has been a great mentor in my life. I try to think and be like an ukulele – to live simple, be humble, friendly, child-like, positive, and always keep my roots in Hawaii.

    For tour dates and a whole lot more, head to jakeshimabukuro.com

    Photos by Paul McAlpine

    This article first appeared in Issue 8 of KAMUKE, which is available in the Store

  • THE DUKE OF UKE

    On December 2, 2011, Bill Tapia passed away. Two months earlier, Cameron Murray had the honour and privilege of talking to the 103-year-old ukulele legend for what proved to be Bill’s final interview. KAMUKE pays tribute to an inspirational man who lived life to the fullest. 

    IN 2004, I lucked out on a ticket to one of Jim Beloff’s UKEtopia concerts at the renowned McCabe’s Guitar Shop in Santa Monica, California, and it was there I saw Bill Tapia for the first time. He was 96 and blew away the sell-out crowd with his musical virtuosity, wit and charm. That same year, despite having been a professional musician for some 85 years, Bill released his first-ever solo album – the fantastic Tropical Swing – and the worldwide ukulele community sat up and took notice.

    Born in Honolulu on January 1, 1908 to Portuguese parents, Tapia bought his first uke from a neighbour for about US$1.75. He was seven years old and that neighbour was none other than Manuel Nunes, the self-proclaimed “inventor” of the ukulele.

    “A fellow by the name of Jim Crowl taught me,” says Bill. “I was just a kid, but they put me in all these contests, amateur contests, and I won every one.”

    Tapia was soon playing his own arrangement of The Stars And Stripes Forever for American troops en route to World War I and by 12 he had quit school and got into vaudeville.

    In 1927, Bill performed at the grand opening of the Royal Hawaiian Hotel in Waikiki. He subsequently landed a job there as a chauffeur, driving VIP guests to scenic spots on the island and entertaining them with his uke at stops along the way. Naturally, a lot of celebrities entered his car and he would often teach them a few chords. Clark Gable, Jimmy Durante, Shirley Temple and Arthur Godfrey all benefitted from Tapia’s impromptu tuition.

    “They liked me there because I was a good driver and I knew all these people,” says Bill. “I played ukulele and sang a little bit.”

    After working on cruise ships between Hawaii and the US west coast, Tapia decided to relocate to Los Angeles after World War II, where he concentrated on playing jazz guitar and performed or jammed with the likes of Charlie Barnet, Billie Holiday, Fats Waller, Bing Crosby and Louis Armstrong, among many others. The ukulele took a back seat and he barely touched it for 55 years.

    Enter public radio DJ and concert producer Alyssa Archambault.

    “I met Bill a little over 10 years ago,” says 35-year-old Archambault. “It was the summer of 2001 and I was doing family genealogy at the time. On my mom’s side, I’ve got a pretty strong Hawaiian heritage. My great-grandparents played in vaudeville. They were part of the first wave of Hawaiians to bring their music to the mainland in the early 1900s, and when they came here, they toured the country and eventually settled in downtown LA.”

    It was Hawaiian slack-key guitarist George Kahumoku Jr who suggested that Archambault should contact Bill Tapia. He knew Bill was in Los Angeles at the same time as Alyssa’s great-grandparents and thought it was possible that they may have known each other.

    “I was really interested and excited about that idea,” she says, “so I gave Bill a cold call one day and started talking to him about my family. Bill basically said, ‘Why don’t you come over and show me your photos of your great-grandparents and we can talk about it?’ I had a lot of things to share, so I loaded up my car and I hung out with Bill all day. He took me out for lunch and we just had this great time.”

    Although he had certainly heard of them, Tapia had never met Archambault’s relatives, but he and Alyssa quickly became friends.

    “Two or three months later, I started booking him at concerts that I did locally and people were eating him up!” says Alyssa. “I started throwing ideas at him, like, ‘How would you feel about touring California?’ Or ‘How would you like to go back to Hawaii?’ And he was all for it. His wife had died just after he and I met, so I think he needed something to concentrate on. Our work together led to a record deal and more tours and more interviews.”

    The year before Bill turned 100, Alyssa approached him with the idea of organising a special birthday concert.

    “He didn’t even blink before he agreed,” she says. “I thought I’d give a tip of the old hat to Bill and create a vaudeville show, so I gathered all of his friends and different types of performers, from tap dancers to hula dancers and drummers and jazz bands.”

    On November 18, 2007, the concert took place at the historic Warner Grand Theatre in San Pedro, California. Tapia had performed there once before – in either 1935 or ’36 – and he played for two solid hours before being presented with a huge birthday cake. Archambault recently released a brilliant CD recorded live at the momentous event.

     

    Aside from his musical skill, the one thing that always set Bill apart was his sense of style.

    “When I was 21, I was living in Hawaii and they had me model clothes in the theatre,” he says. “I love clothes and I wouldn’t leave the house unless I was dressed up with a jacket and everything.”

    “He told me many times that being a musician back in the day was like being a doctor,” says Alyssa. “It was a big deal back then. Nowadays, for a girl to bring a musician home, it’s another story!”

    Almost right up until his death, Tapia was still teaching uke, and he has some helpful hints for beginners: “Tell them to buy a ukulele and get a good book – and don’t try to learn too quick. The main thing is to learn to tune it good and learn two chords every day. And strum the chords so you can change from one to the other without breaking or stopping the rhythm. You’ll learn to play the darn thing in no time and you’ll learn it right. And tell them to put in half an hour, at least, every day.”

    “I played a helluva lot of steel guitar and regular guitar and bass, but ukulele is my favourite,” reveals Bill.

    Everybody likes it when you play the ukulele. I don’t know why, but they do. I played the ukulele when I was 12 years old, in 1920, when they loved it, and now it’s coming back! Everybody has a ukulele.

    So what can we learn from Bill’s amazing life?

    “I learnt to believe in my dreams and my passions – and to try to follow through with that in my life as much as possible,” says Archambault. “Bill did it since he was eight and it got him to 103.”

    We celebrate Bill Tapia not because of his extraordinary age, but because of his extraordinary personality. In a world of fakes and imitators, he was a true original.

    This article first appeared in Issue 3 of KAMUKE, which is available in the Store